Part I: Chinese

China and Chinese (see a sample)

2. Spoken Chinese 28

Standard Language and "Dialects" 28
Sound System 30
Morphemes: Words or Word Parts 32
Two-Morpheme Words 34 (see a sample)
Why Compound Words? 35
Foreign Loan Words 37
Full Words, Empty Words, and Classifiers 38
Sentence Structures 40

3. Chinese Characters: Hanzi 43

Beginning of Characters 43
Evolution of Script Styles 44 (see a sample)
Chinese Calligraphy 48
Six Categories of Characters 50
Number of Characters 53
Shapes of Characters 56
Complex vs Simple Characters 58

4. Meaning Representation in Characters 62

Pictographs and Indicators 62
Semantic Components and Radicals 63
Characters Tell Stories 65 (see a sample)
Compound Words and Idioms 68
Characters for Abbreviations 71
Chinese Numerals 71
Chinese Personal Names 72
Magical Quality of Characters 75
Characters Understood Across Times and Places 77

5. Sound Representation by Characters 79

Assigning Syllables to Characters 79
Phonetic Components 80
Phonetic Loans and Fanqie 83
Homophonic, Polyphonic, or Unpronounced Characters 84 (see a sample)

6. Logographic Characters vs Phonetic Scripts 87

Logography, Alphabet, and Syllabary 87
Logographs vs. Phonetic Graphs: Research 91 (see a sample)
Alphabet vs Logography for Science 96
Effects of Scripts and Literacy on Cognition 100

7. Text Writing in Chinese, Korean, and Japanese 102

Writing Directions: Vertical vs. Horizontal 102 (see a sample)
Visual Span and Eye Movements 104
Punctuation Marks and Spacing 106
Prose and Paragraph Structure 109

8. Reforming Spoken and Written Chinese 112

Mandarin and Putonghua (Common Speech) 113 (see a sample)
Literary vs. Vernacular Language 114
Raionalizing the Chinese Writing System 117
Simplifying Character Shapes 119
Roman Letters and Phonetic Symbols 122
Pinyin vs Wade­Giles Romanization 124
Computerizing Chinese Characters 126
Pinyin Complements Characters 129

9. Learning Hanzi, Pinyin, and Putonghua 132

Should Preschoolers be Taught to Read? 132
How Hanzi are Taught to Preschoolers 134
How Reading is Taught at School 136 (see a sample)
Research on the Use of Pinyin 140
Instruction of and in Putonghua ('Common Speech') 142
Primary and Secondary School 143

10. History of Education and Literacy in China 146

Confucianism and Confucian Classics 146
The Civil-Service Examination System 150 (see a sample)
Chinese World Views 154
Invention of Paper and Printing 157
Books and Publications 159
History of Literacy 165
Degrees of Literacy Using Characters 166
Traditional and Pre-1949 Education 170
In Women Ignorance is Virtue 172
Education: Ideology and Post-secondary 174

Summary and Conclusions 177

Bibliography for Part I 180

Part 2. Korean

Part 3 Japanese